A medical doctor simplifies the different ways you can prevent pregnancy with various types of contraception (contraceptives) including their effectiveness and side effects.

A list of the different ways you can avoid pregnancy:

1. The Male Condom

A sheath usually made of latex that covers the penis and blocks sperm from reaching the vagina.

How effective? 95%. But in actual use about 85%

Side effects: some people have a latex allergy(not common)

List of different ways to avoid pregnancy
Male condom

2. Female condoms

Cheap also, but availability is not as the male condom, it is put into the vagina and blocks sperms from reaching the uterus.

Side effects: allergies to latex

How effective? About 79% and many people do not know how to use it.

Female condom
Female condom

3. Cervical cap:

A cap-like device that covers the cervix, can also be filled with spermicides(substances that kill sperms.

Side effects: The issue is that it has to be in for some hours after sex and some people can develop very serious reactions to the spermicide.

How effective? 80%

Cervical cap
Cervical cap – barrier method of contraception
4. Implants:
As big as a match stick, it is implanted under the skin, usually in the upper arm It affects the cervical mucus and affects ovulation.
Duration: Can last for 5 years
How effective? 99%
Some side effects: weight gain, breasts tenderness, acne, irregular periods.
5. Copper IUD:
This is placed inside the womb, It prevents the fertilized egg from joining the womb. Can be used for up to 10 years
How effective? 99%
Some side effects: cramps, spotting, PID (rare) sometimes can go missing in the womb.
List of ways to prevent getting pregnant
Copper IUCD

6. Hormonal IUD:

Same as above, the only difference is this one has a hormone that also blocks ovulation and makes cervical mucus thick

How effective? 99+%

Side effects; same as above plus irregular periods.

7. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills

You take this one every day, and it also helps to block the cervix by increasing the mucus production and blocking ovulation.

It can also reduce the menstrual symptoms.

How effective: 91%

It can reduce your risk of ovarian cancer and some breast tumours.

How to avoid pregnancy
Combined Oral contraceptive pills

8. Hormonal injection;

Injected into the muscle and released slowly, Used every 3 months, works like the implant.

How effective: 98%

Some side effects: irregular periods, weight gain, nausea, breast tenderness etc

A very common example of injectable hormonal contraceptive is depo provera.

Depo provera
Depo-provera shot

9. Emergency Pills

These are the ones commonly know as Back Up, postpill and Postinor

WORKS for up to 72 hours after unprotected sex

Effectiveness drops as time passes, can be as high as 98% in the first 24 hours

Not to be taken often, if you are using it often, use a more regular method.

Ways you can prevent pregnancy
Emergency contraceptive

10. Bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy

They remove the womb or tie the tubes that bring the egg to the womb

How effective: 99+%

Side effects: ectopic pregnancy for some people. Mood changes, depression, etc

Tubal ligation
Bilateral tubal ligation
Credit: Fairview Health Services

11. Vasectomy:

The tubes that bring sperm into the penis is cut Meaning no sperms…

How effective: 99+%

Side effects; you can only start having unprotected sex after three months after they have verified that there is no sperm in your ejaculate. Others are depression, and mode changes.

Credit: Wikipedia

12. Natural method/Calendar

Here the couple keeps track of the fertile days of the woman, and avoid sex on those days and about 5 days leading to those days

She can also measure her basal body temperature method as well as cervical mucus.

They can be difficult to use correctly.

13. Abstinence

No sex, no pregnancy. The surest way you can prevent pregnancy without stress. I’m

Effectiveness: 100%.

Side Effects: Nil

14. Withdrawal method

Here the man withdraws the phallus before ejaculation. Practice at your own risk.

It is not a reliable method of preventing pregnancy and tends to fail.

There are rare cases when sperm is present in precum and can get a lady pregnant.

Please bear in mind that this thread is not exhaustive. There are other ways you can prevent pregnancy. Only bears the salient points are stated here. For more information on which is best for you. Visit your doctor for a consultation.

What may work for you, might not work for another.

Aproko Doctor


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