A medical doctor simplifies the different ways you can prevent pregnancy with various types of contraception (contraceptives) including their effectiveness and side effects.
A list of the different ways you can avoid pregnancy:
1. The Male Condom
A sheath usually made of latex that covers the penis and blocks sperm from reaching the vagina.
How effective? 95%. But in actual use about 85%
Side effects: some people have a latex allergy(not common)
2. Female condoms
Cheap also, but availability is not as the male condom, it is put into the vagina and blocks sperms from reaching the uterus.
Side effects: allergies to latex
How effective? About 79% and many people do not know how to use it.
3. Cervical cap:
A cap-like device that covers the cervix, can also be filled with spermicides(substances that kill sperms.
Side effects: The issue is that it has to be in for some hours after sex and some people can develop very serious reactions to the spermicide.
How effective? 80%
6. Hormonal IUD:
Same as above, the only difference is this one has a hormone that also blocks ovulation and makes cervical mucus thick
How effective? 99+%
Side effects; same as above plus irregular periods.
7. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills
You take this one every day, and it also helps to block the cervix by increasing the mucus production and blocking ovulation.
It can also reduce the menstrual symptoms.
How effective: 91%
It can reduce your risk of ovarian cancer and some breast tumours.
8. Hormonal injection;
Injected into the muscle and released slowly, Used every 3 months, works like the implant.
How effective: 98%
Some side effects: irregular periods, weight gain, nausea, breast tenderness etc
A very common example of injectable hormonal contraceptive is depo provera.
9. Emergency Pills
These are the ones commonly know as Back Up, postpill and Postinor
WORKS for up to 72 hours after unprotected sex
Effectiveness drops as time passes, can be as high as 98% in the first 24 hours
Not to be taken often, if you are using it often, use a more regular method.
10. Bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy
They remove the womb or tie the tubes that bring the egg to the womb
How effective: 99+%
Side effects: ectopic pregnancy for some people. Mood changes, depression, etc
The tubes that bring sperm into the penis is cut Meaning no sperms…
How effective: 99+%
Side effects; you can only start having unprotected sex after three months after they have verified that there is no sperm in your ejaculate. Others are depression, and mode changes.
12. Natural method/Calendar
Here the couple keeps track of the fertile days of the woman, and avoid sex on those days and about 5 days leading to those days
She can also measure her basal body temperature method as well as cervical mucus.
They can be difficult to use correctly.
No sex, no pregnancy. The surest way you can prevent pregnancy without stress. I’m
Side Effects: Nil
14. Withdrawal method
Here the man withdraws the phallus before ejaculation. Practice at your own risk.
It is not a reliable method of preventing pregnancy and tends to fail.
There are rare cases when sperm is present in precum and can get a lady pregnant.
Please bear in mind that this thread is not exhaustive. There are other ways you can prevent pregnancy. Only bears the salient points are stated here. For more information on which is best for you. Visit your doctor for a consultation.
What may work for you, might not work for another.