13 causes of Testicular Pain (Scrotal Pain) including Treatment

It may interest you to know pain or discomfort that comes from the testicles and scrotum can be a sign of something very dangerous.

If ignored or improperly handled, it can ultimately lead to a man being unable to have children (male infertility)

Let’s talk about #ScrotumPain today…

Causes of testicular pain
What causes testicular pain?

For the purposes of this article, and to make things simple a little, I would interchangeably use the words “testicular pain” and “scrotum pain” even though technically, the scrotum is like the bag, and the testes is the balls in the bag.

What is the testes?

These are the egg-like structures located in the scrotum of men and young male children.

What is Testicular/Scrotum Pain?

This refers to a sensation of discomfort or pain that is felt in the testes or scrotum or both. Sometimes, testicular pain radiates tibthe leg.

You see sometimes the actual cause of Scrotum Pain can be from a problem in the tummy which is now felt in the testis/scrotum, or it may be from a problem in the testis itself or a problem in the epididymis (a coiled tune that is attached to the testis).

I hope this makes sense?

How serious can Scrotum Pain get?

Now it is important to quickly state here that there are two common causes of Scrotum Pain which can either immediately or eventually lead to losing the testis or being unable to have children as a man.

What are the possible causes of Testicular pain?

1. Torsion testes


3. Hernia (protrusion of tummy contents through the groin and scrotum)

4.Orchitis (inflammation of the testis itself, usually occurs with Epididymitis)

5.Trauma to the scrotum

6.Kidney Stones

7.Testis Cancer

8.Diabetes (diabetic neuropathy)

9. Hydrocele

10. Mumps

11. Varicocele

12. Spermatocele

13. Post-vasectomy pain

These two common Scrotum Pain causes are Testicular Torsion and Epididymitis.

Pain from testicular torsion usually comes on suddenly.

Pain from a viral or bacterial infection of the testes or scrotal area (epididymitis) usually begins gradually.

Testicular Torsion is an emergency because the person needs to go to the theatre immediately before that testicle becomes useless.

The testes require oxygen transported by the blood to remain functional, and the sudden twisting may result in the “death” of a testicle.

When the testicle twists, the blood vessels to it also twist leading to an interruption of blood/oxygen flow to the affected testicle.

And IF this is not quickly corrected with an urgent surgery can lead to loss of the testis and eventually make the man infertile.

What is Epididymitis?

Epididymitis (it’s an inflammation of the epididymis) mostly due to an infection like an STI.

And it’s the most common cause of testicular pain in men older than 18 years, though it can happen in boys before puberty and even in elderly men.

Who is at risk of Epididymitis?

Sexually active men, mostly men over 17years old, most commonly have epididymitis due to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia.

And again, ignoring this and not treating it can cause fertility problems later.

So if someone has scrotal pain, the doctor’s first concern is to determine whether or not the pain is caused by testicular torsion, because this is a surgical emergency requiring prompt medical attention and urgent operation to salvage the testis.

NEVER IGNORE Scrotum Pain!

Apart from Scrotum Pain, other associated symptom to note are:

-Swelling, tenderness, or redness of the testicles and scrotum

-Nausea and vomiting


-Painful urination or penile discharge

-Pain with sexual intercourse

-Pain with ejaculation

-Blood in the urine

-Blood in the semen

All of the above symptoms, taken together with having #ScrotumPain are very important things to never take lightly.

Especially if you are a young man who has not had children.
Or who wants to live a long life.

A quick visit to the doctor can save you from many tears later.

When Should You Call Your Doctor?

Call your doctor immediately to book an appointment if:

-there’s a lump on your scrotum
-you have high temperature
-your scrotum is red, warm when you touch, or is quite painful
-you’ve recently had sex without condoms.

Please call an ambulance immediately if your testicular pain is:

-sudden or severe.

-occurs with nausea or vomiting.

-is caused by an injury that’s painful or if swelling starts to develop.

You may be bleeding or have a twisted testicle. Don’t delay.

This may be a Torsion!

What Are the Complications of Testicular Pain?

Never ignore any case of #ScrotumPain. Talk to a doctor.

An untreated STD such as chlamydia/gonorrhoea or a serious condition such as testicular torsion can result in permanent damage to your testicles and make you infertile.

How To Prevent Scrotum Pain

Simple tips are:

-wearing an athletic supporter to prevent injury to the testicles during sports

-practicing safe sex, including using a condoms

-check your testicles once a month to note changes/lumps

-get the mumps vaccine if you don’t have it.

Thanks for your amazing patience for reading through this to the very end.

Dr Olufunmilayo

Featured Image: Chicago Health Magazine


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